Archive for the ‘ServiceManager’ Category

Retrieving projection data with PowerShell   Leave a comment

There are a number of cmdlets in the SMLets project (http://smlets.codeplex.com) which retrieve data from Service Manager. To reduce the amount of data in getting simple instances from Service Manager, Get-SCSMObject provides a filter parameter which lets you provide a simple property/operator/value triad to reduce the amount of data that is retrieved from the CMDB. This is really helps performance because the filtering happens on the server. We can see the difference pretty easily:

PS# measure-command { get-scsmobject -Class $incidentclass | ?{ $_.Title -like "Ipsum*" } }
Days              : 0
Hours             : 0
Minutes           : 0
Seconds           : 1
Milliseconds      : 460
Ticks             : 14609004
TotalDays         : 1.69085694444444E-05
TotalHours        : 0.000405805666666667
TotalMinutes      : 0.02434834
TotalSeconds      : 1.4609004
TotalMilliseconds : 1460.9004

PS# measure-command { get-scsmobject -Class $incidentclass -filter { Title -like "Ipsum*" } }
Days              : 0
Hours             : 0
Minutes           : 0
Seconds           : 0
Milliseconds      : 134
Ticks             : 1341265
TotalDays         : 1.5523900462963E-06
TotalHours        : 3.72573611111111E-05
TotalMinutes      : 0.00223544166666667
TotalSeconds      : 0.1341265
TotalMilliseconds : 134.1265

In total time, this might not be impressive, but from a percentage perspective, it is.  In this case, filtering on the server cuts the operation time by 90%, which is pretty substantial. However, simple instances are small potatoes in comparison to what we can save if we implement a filter on projection retrieval.

There is also a filter parameter on Get-SCSMObjectProjection, but it only allows you to filter against properties of the seed object, there’s no way to query the relationships in this filter. However, since much of the interesting information about a projection is the relationship data, so a simple filter isn’t as much help as it is for simple instances. Because I wanted to be sure that there was at least some way that you could query against the relationships, I included a criteria parameter which takes an ObjectProjectionCriteria, but left the creation of this criteria as “an exercise for the reader”. I’ve had a few requests for this, so I thought it would be good to build a way to easily create this criteria based on the projection. Behaviorally, I wanted to provide a similar experience to that of the filter’s property/operator/value trio, so the filter that I created for projections has the same basic shape, but the property part of the trio has a different look.

The property part of the filter is broken into 2 pieces, the relationship (as expressed in the alias) and the property on that relationship. If we look at the System.WorkItem.Incident.View.ProjectionType we see the following structure:

PS# get-scsmtypeprojection incident.view.projection

ProjectionType: System.WorkItem.Incident.View.ProjectionType
ProjectionSeed: System.WorkItem.Incident
Components:
   Alias           TargetType        TargetEndPoint
   -----           ----------        ---------------
   AffectedUser    System.User       RequestedWorkItem
   AssignedUser    System.User       AssignedWorkItem

This projection has two components “AffectedUser” and “AssignedUser”. With this script, I can construct a filter like this:

AssignedUser.DisplayName = 'Joe User'

which will check the DisplayName property of the System.User object which is the end point of the relationship. I also wanted to support multiple queries, so I added support for -AND which allows you to create multiple property/operator/value statements.

The savings in retrieving projection data is substantial. Here’s a query which retrieves incidents which have a priority of 2 and have a related work-item which has a DisplayName which is equal to MA37. Filtering in the query is 200 times faster.

PS# measure-command { 
>> .\new-scsmProjectionCriteria.ps1 $ipfull.__Base -filter {
>> priority = 2 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37" } -result
>> }
Days              : 0
Hours             : 0
Minutes           : 0
Seconds           : 0
Milliseconds      : 625
Ticks             : 6258242
TotalDays         : 7.24333564814815E-06
TotalHours        : 0.000173840055555556
TotalMinutes      : 0.0104304033333333
TotalSeconds      : 0.6258242
TotalMilliseconds : 625.8242
PS# measure-command { Get-SCSMObjectProjection -ProjectionObject $ipfull |
>>  ?{ $_.priority -eq "2" -and ($_.RelatesToWorkItem_ |?{$_.DisplayNAme -eq "MA37" })} }
Days              : 0
Hours             : 0
Minutes           : 2
Seconds           : 5
Milliseconds      : 888
Ticks             : 1258883302
TotalDays         : 0.0014570408587963
TotalHours        : 0.0349689806111111
TotalMinutes      : 2.09813883666667
TotalSeconds      : 125.8883302

It should be no surprise that it’s much faster to return only the data that you want, because there’s so much less information that needs to be passed back from the CMDB. Also, during the first pipeline, the CPU utilization was quite high (ranging between 60-80%) where utilization was split between PowerShell (PowerShell does a lot of adaptation of the returned projection), the SQL server and the DataAccess Service.

Here are some of the filters that I tested against the System.WorkItem.Incident.ProjectionType projection:

'title -like "Ipsum*" -and CreatedByUser.DisplayName -like "D*"'
'title -like "Ipsum*" -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -like "M*"'
'title -like "Ipsum*" -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority = 2 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority -gt 1 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority -lt 3 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority -le 3 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority <= 3 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority -ne 3 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -eq "MA37"'
'priority -ne 3 -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -notlike "MA3*"'
'priority -eq 3 -and Status -eq "Closed" -and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -notlike "MA3*"'
'priority -eq 3 -and AssignedUser.displayname -like "D*" -and Status -eq "Closed" 
-and RelatedWorkItems.DisplayName -notlike "MA3*"'

Each time, the difference in time between client side and server side filtering is huge!

Here’s the script:

 1: ###
 2: ### filters have the form of:
 3: ### [alias.]propertyname <operator> value
 4: ### if there's no ".", then the assumption is that the 
 5: ### criteria is looking for the property of a seed
 6: ### if there is a ".", then it's a property of a relationship
 7: ### the relationship is described by the alias
 8: ### 
 9: [CmdletBinding()]
 10: param (
 11:     [parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=0)]
 12:     $projection,
 13:     [parameter(Mandatory=$true,Position=1)][string]$filter,
 14:     [parameter()][switch]$results
 15:     )
 16: 
 17: # determine whether the property is an enumeration type
 18: function Test-IsEnum
 19: {
 20:     param ( $property )
 21:     if ( $property.SystemType.Name -eq "Enum" ) { return $true }
 22:     return $false
 23: }
 24: # Get the string which provides a reference in our criteria to the
 25: # management pack which contains the element we're searching against
 26: function Get-ReferenceString
 27: {
 28:     param (
 29:         $ManagementPack,
 30:         [ref]$alias
 31:         )
 32:     $alias.Value = $ManagementPack.Name.Replace(".","")
 33:     $refstring = '<Reference Id="{0}" PublicKeyToken="{1}" Version="{2}" Alias="{3}" />'
 34:     $refstring -f $ManagementPack.Name,$ManagementPack.KeyToken,$ManagementPack.Version,$Alias.Value
 35: }
 36: 
 37: # retrieve the property from the class
 38: # we want to do this because we may get a property from the user which has the case
 39: # incorrect, this allows us to match property names case insensitively
 40: function Get-ClassProperty
 41: {
 42:     param ( $Class, $propertyName )
 43:     $property = ($Class.GetProperties("Recursive")|?{$_.name -eq $propertyName})
 44:     if ( ! $property ) { throw ("no such property '$propertyName' in " + $Class.Name) }
 45:     return $property
 46: }
 47: # in the case that the value that we got is applicable to an enum, look up the
 48: # guid that is needed for the comparison and substitute that guid value
 49: # replace the '*' with '%' which is needed by the criteria
 50: function Get-ProperValue
 51: {
 52:     param ( $Property, $value )
 53:     if ( Test-IsEnum $property )
 54:     {
 55:         $value = get-scsmenumeration $property.type|?{$_.displayname -eq $value}|%{$_.id}
 56:     }
 57:     return $value -replace "\*","%"
 58: }
 59: # create the XML expression which describes the criteria
 60: function Get-Expression
 61: {
 62:     param (
 63:         $TypeProjection,
 64:         [Hashtable]$POV,
 65:         [ref]$neededReferences
 66:         )
 67:     $Property = $POV.Property
 68:     $Operator = $POV.Operator
 69:     $Value    = $POV.Value
 70:     $ExpressionXML = @'
 71:         <Expression>
 72:          <SimpleExpression>
 73:           <ValueExpressionLeft><Property>{0}</Property></ValueExpressionLeft>
 74:           <Operator>{1}</Operator>
 75:           <ValueExpressionRight><Value>{2}</Value></ValueExpressionRight>
 76:          </SimpleExpression>
 77:         </Expression>
 78: '@
 79:     [ref]$MPAlias = $null
 80: 
 81:     # a proper property reference in a projection criteria looks like this:
 82:     # <Property>
 83:     # $Context/Path[Relationship='CustomSystem_WorkItem_Library!System.WorkItemAffectedUser' 
 84:     # TypeConstraint='CustomSystem_Library!System.User']/
 85:     # Property[Type='CustomSystem_Library!System.User']/FirstName$
 86:     # </Property>
 87:     # we need to collect all the bits and do the same
 88:     # if the property has a "." in it, we will assume that this is the property
 89:     # of a relationship. Therefore, get the relationship and construct the 
 90:     # appropriate string for the property access
 91:     #
 92:     # This routine only supports a single ".", anything more complicated and this will 
 93:     # fail
 94:     if ( $property -match "\." )
 95:     {
 96:         $alias,$prop = $property -split "\."
 97:         $component = $projection.TypeProjection[$alias]
 98:         $references = @()
 99:         $NS = "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement"
 100:         $ConfigNS = "${NS}.Configuration"
 101:         $ComponentType = "${ConfigNS}.ManagementPackTypeProjectionComponent"
 102:         if ( $component -isnot $ComponentType)
 103:         {
 104:             throw "'$alias' not found on projection"
 105:         }
 106:         $target = $component.TargetType
 107:         $references += Get-ReferenceString $target.GetManagementPack() $MPAlias
 108:         $TargetFQN = "{0}!{1}" -f $MPAlias.Value,$Target.Name
 109:         $property = Get-ClassProperty $target $prop
 110:         $value = Get-ProperValue $property $value
 111:         
 112:         $relationship = $component.Relationship
 113:         $references += Get-ReferenceString $relationship.GetManagementPack() $MPAlias
 114:         $relationshipFQN = "{0}!{1}" -f $MPAlias.Value,$relationship.name
 115:  
 116:         $PropString = '$Context/Path[Relationship=''{0}'' TypeConstraint=''{1}'']/Property[Type=''{1}'']/{2}$'
 117:         $XPATHSTR = $PropString -f $RelationshipFQN,$TargetFQN,$property.Name
 118: 
 119:         $Expression = $ExpressionXML -f $XPATHSTR,$QueryOperator,$value
 120:         $neededReferences.Value = $references | sort-object -uniq
 121:         return $Expression
 122:     }
 123:     else
 124:     {
 125:         $SeedClass = get-scsmclass -id $projection.TargetType.Id
 126:         $property = Get-ClassProperty $SeedClass $property
 127:         $value = Get-ProperValue $Property $value
 128: 
 129:         $SeedMP = $SeedClass.GetManagementPack()
 130:         $reference = Get-ReferenceString $SeedMP $MPAlias
 131:         $typeFQN = "{0}!{1}" -f $MPAlias.Value,$SeedClass.Name
 132: 
 133:         $PropString = '$Context/Property[Type=''{0}'']/{1}$' -f $typeFQN,$Property.Name
 134:         $Expression = $ExpressionXML -f $PropString,$Operator,$Value
 135:         $neededReferences.Value = $reference
 136:         return $Expression
 137:     }
 138: }
 139:  
 140: trap { $error[0];exit }
 141: if ( $projection -is "psobject"  )
 142: {
 143:     $projection = $projection.__base
 144: }
 145: $ProjectionType = "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackTypeProjection"
 146: if ( $projection -isnot $ProjectionType )
 147: {
 148:     throw "$projection is not a projection and cannot be converted"
 149: }
 150: # right now, only AND is supported,
 151: # eventually, OR will be supported
 152: $GroupOperators = " -and "
 153: # and the conversion to what is needed in the criteria
 154: $OperatorConverter = @{
 155:     "="     = "Equal"
 156:     "-eq"   = "Equal"
 157:     "!="    = "NotEqual"
 158:     "-ne"   = "NotEqual"
 159:     "-like" = "Like"
 160:     "-notlike" = "NotLike"
 161:     "<"     = "Less"
 162:     "-lt"   = "Less"
 163:     ">"     = "Greater"
 164:     "-gt"   = "Greater"
 165:     ">="    = "GreaterEqual"
 166:     "-ge"   = "GreaterEqual"
 167:     "<="    = "LessEqual"
 168:     "-le"   = "LessEqual"
 169:     }
 170: # a list of allowed operators, generated from the converter
 171: $Operators = ($OperatorConverter.Keys |%{" $_ "}) -join "|"
 172: # split the filter up based on the GroupOperator
 173: $filters = @($filter.ToString() -split $GroupOperators | %{$_.trim()})
 174: # some variables that we will need 
 175: [ref]$neededrefs = $null
 176: $Expressions = @()
 177: $ReferenceStrings = @()
 178: # loop through the filters and construct some XML which we will use
 179: foreach ( $filterString in $filters)
 180: {
 181:     # check to be sure we have a valid filter which includes
 182:     # a property, an operator and a value
 183:     $foundMatch = $filterString.toString() -match "(?<p>.*)(?<o>$operators)(?<v>.*)"
 184:     if ( ! $foundMatch )
 185:     {
 186:         throw "bad filter $filter"
 187:     }
 188:     # manipulate the found elements into a PropertyOperatorValue hashtable
 189:     # which we will use to encapsulate the filter
 190:     $Property = $matches['p'].Trim()
 191:     $Operator = $matches['o'].Trim()
 192:     $QueryOperator = $OperatorConverter[$Operator]
 193:     if ( ! $Operator ) { throw "Bad Operator '$Operator'" }
 194:     $Value    = $matches['v'].Trim() -replace '"' -replace "'"
 195:     $POV = @{
 196:         Property = $Property
 197:         Operator = $QueryOperator
 198:         Value    = $Value
 199:         }
 200:     # now go get the expression that we need for the criteria
 201:     # pass the projection, the PropertyOperatorValue hashtable
 202:     # and the needed references (as a reference variable }
 203:     $expressions += get-expression $projection $POV $neededrefs
 204:     $neededRefs.Value | %{ $ReferenceStrings += $_ }
 205: }
 206: # now that we have looped through the filters, construct the XML
 207: # which we need to call the ObjectProjectCriteria constructor
 208: # start off with the start of the criteria XML
 209: $CriteriaString = '<Criteria xmlns="http://Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.Criteria/">'
 210: # now add the references that are needed in the criteria
 211: $ReferenceStrings | sort -uniq | %{ $CriteriaString += "`n $_" }
 212: # if we actually had multiple filters, add the 
 213: # <And>
 214: if ( $Filters.count -gt 1 )
 215: {
 216:     $CriteriaString += "`n<Expression>"
 217:     $CriteriaString += "`n <And>"
 218: }
 219: # now, for each of the expressions, add it to the criteria string
 220: foreach($ex in $expressions ) { $CriteriaString += "`n $ex" }
 221: # and in the case where we have filters that have and "-and", add the
 222: # </And> to finish correctly
 223: if ( $Filters.Count -gt 1)
 224: {
 225:     $CriteriaString += "`n </And>"
 226:     $CriteriaString += "`n</Expression>"
 227: }
 228: $CriteriaString += "`n</Criteria>"
 229: write-verbose $CriteriaString
 230: # at this stage, the criteria XML should be complete, so we can create the
 231: # criteria object
 232: $CTYPE = "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Common.ObjectProjectionCriteria"
 233:  
 234: $criteriaobject = new-object $CTYPE $CriteriaString,$projection,$projection.ManagementGroup
 235: if ( $criteriaObject -and $Results )
 236: {
 237:     get-scsmobjectprojection -criteria $criteriaobject
 238: }
 239: elseif ( $criteriaObject )
 240: {
 241:     $criteriaObject
 242: }
 243: 

I added a Result parameter to the script which calls Get-SCSMObjectProjection, just for convenience. Eventually, I’ll add this logic into the filter parameter for the cmdlet, so it will be part of the cmdlet rather than this addition.

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Posted May 13, 2011 by jtruher3 in PowerShell, ServiceManager

missing in action   1 comment

Clearly i haven’t posted for a long while, and while there are many reasons which I don’t need to go into, it’s not because I’ve been slacking. Most recently, I’ve been working on a codeplex project (http://smlets.codeplex.com) which uses PowerShell to interact with Service Manager (i’ve been working on Service Manager for a while). The project has been great fun and has let me do a quite a bit of cmdlet development, which I really enjoy. If you use Service Manager, you should definitely check it out.

The real point of this post is to share my experience over the last couple of days at the PowerShell Deep Dive which happened at the Experts Conference in Las Vegas. I have always been extremely proud of my work while I was working on PowerShell; giving birth to that product was a long, and at times, difficult experience which taught me a lot about myself. However, seeing how it has affected (in a positive way) so many people really makes all that worth while. Seeing the excitement in others cannot help but uplift the spirit and I am so glad that I had the opportunity to contribute. The stories about how PowerShell have improved the lives of others in concrete ways is awesome.

The experience has reinvigorated me as well; talking to so many intelligent, articulate people has given me a whole bunch of new ideas to write on, so I hope you will see a stream of posts here (as long as I can follow through!). My next post will be on creating custom formatting, hopefully posted before the plane lands.

Posted April 19, 2011 by jtruher3 in General, PowerShell, ServiceManager

Service Manager Announcements   Leave a comment

I’ve written in previous blogs on how to get data out of Service Manager, and generally, that data is usually simple text, numbers or sometimes an enumeration (which is pretty easy to convert to text). However, Service Manager also allows you to store text with formatting (rich text data) which can be pretty difficult to view. First, let’s create an announcement:

We can use one of the scripts created in an earlier posting to retrieve an instance of the announcement:

PS> get-smclass announcement.item|get-scsmobject|fl
Id             : 2
Title          : Announcement 001
Body           : {\rtf1\ansi\ansicpg1252\uc1\htmautsp\deff2{\fonttbl{\f0\fcharset0
                 Times New Roman;}{\f2\fcharset0 Sego
                 e UI;}{\f3\fcharset0 Calibri;}{\f4\fcharset0 Copperplate Gothic
                 Bold;}}{\colortbl\red0\green0\blue0;\r
                 ed255\green255\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;}
                 {\*\listtable
                 {\list\listtemplateid1\listhybrid
. . .
                 b0\jclisttab\tx720\fi-360\ql\par}
                 }
                 }
ExpirationDate : 6/28/2010 7:00:00 AM
Priority       : System.Announcement.PriorityEnum.Medium
DisplayName    : Announcement 001
Type           : System.Announcement.Item
Name           : 2
Path           :
FullName       : System.Announcement.Item:2

Since the body property of the announcement is rich text, it really isn’t readable in this format, but we can fix that with a fun little script. This is one of those scripts that allow us to mix the command line and the graphical environment. We’ll call this script Display-RichText.ps1 since that’s what it does!

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param (
$string
)
begin
{
[void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName(“System.Windows.Forms”)
[void][reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName(“System.Drawing”)
## the form
$form = new-object System.Windows.Forms.Form
$form.size = new-object System.Drawing.Size 400,400 

## the Rich text box
$text = new-object System.Windows.Forms.RichTextBox
$text.multiline = $true
$text.dock = “Fill”
$text.scrollbars = “Both”
$text.width = 80

## Quit button
$QuitButton = new Windows.Forms.Button
$QuitButton.Name = “QuitButton”
$QuitButton.TabIndex = 0
$QuitButton.Text = “Quit”
$QuitButton.UseVisualStyleBackColor = $true
$QuitButton.Add_Click({$form.dispose()})
$QuitButton.Dock = “Bottom”

$form.controls.add($text)
$form.controls.add($QuitButton)
function loadtext
{
param ( $string )
try
{
$bytes = [byte[]]($string.ToCharArray())
$stream = new-object io.memorystream $bytes,$true
$text.loadfile($stream, “richtext”)
$text.DeselectAll()
[void]$form.showdialog()
}
finally
{
$stream.close()
$stream.dispose()
}
}

}
end
{
loadtext $string
}

Now let’s see what we can do!

PS> $announcement = get-smclass announcement.item|get-scsmobject
PS> display-richtext $announcement.body

Now we can see the contents of the announcement!

Posted June 13, 2010 by jtruher3 in ServiceManager

Saving Service Manager Instances in a CSV file   Leave a comment

In a post I did a few months ago, I wrote how it you can retrieve data from Service Manager via a PowerShell script, but I didn’t show much more than just plain output. Earlier this week I was asked if it would be possible to export configuration items in a CSV file. By using the script I wrote months ago, we have all the tools we need. Let’s review the previous script:

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param ( $classname )
$emg      = new-object microsoft.enterprisemanagement.enterprisemanagementgroup localhost
$class    = $emg.EntityTypes.GetClasses()|?{$_.name -eq $classname}
if ( ! $class )
{
    Write-Error "`nERROR: Class ‘$classname’ not found, exiting."
    exit
}
$DEFAULT  = [Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Common.ObjectQueryOptions]::Default
$EMOT     = [Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Common.EnterpriseManagementObject]
# Retrieve the interface for EntityObjects, which we’ll use when we create our generic method
$IMGMT    = $emg.EntityObjects.GetType()
# the types of the parameters, this is so we can find the right method
[type[]]$TYPES = [Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackClass],
                 [Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Common.ObjectQueryOptions]
# Retrieve the method
$ObjectReader = $IMGMT.GetMethod("GetObjectReader",$TYPES)
# Create a generic method
$GenericMethod = $ObjectReader.MakeGenericMethod($EMOT)
# Invoke the method with our arguments
[array]$arguments = [Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackClass]$class,$DEFAULT
$GenericMethod.invoke($emg.EntityObjects,$arguments) | %{
    # Create a custom object based on the original object
    $o = new-object psobject $_
    # elevate the properties in the Values collection to the top level
    $o.values|%{ $o | add-member -force NoteProperty $_.Type $_.Value }
    # assign a synthetic typename to the object, so we can use our formatting
    # more easily
    $name = $_.GetLeastDerivedNonAbstractClass().name
    $o.psobject.typenames.Insert(0, "EnterpriseManagementObject#$name")
    # now, emit the object!
    $o
    }

We’ll call this script get-object (and it assumes that you’ve already loaded the Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.dll), and just to remind you, here’s how it works:

PS> get-object microsoft.windows.computer|format-table DisplayName,Netbios*,PrincipalName -au

DisplayName                   NetbiosComputerName NetbiosDomainName PrincipalName
-----------                   ------------------- ----------------- -------------
JWT-SCDW$                     JWT-SCDW            WOODGROVE         JWT-SCDW.woodgrove.com
WIN-752HJBSX24M.woodgrove.com WIN-752HJBSX24M     WOODGROVE         WIN-752HJBSX24M.woodgrove.com

You provide a class name to it and it retrieves all the instances of that class. Now, to save these instances in a CSV file, I just need to use the Export-CSV cmdlet that is part of the PowerShell distribution and viola!

PS> get-object microsoft.windows.computer|Export-CSV Microsoft.Windows.Computer.csv
PS> get-content .\Microsoft.Windows.Computer.csv
#TYPE EnterpriseManagementObject#Microsoft.Windows.Computer
"PrincipalName","DNSName","NetbiosComputerName","NetbiosDomainName","IPAddres...
"JWT-SCDW.woodgrove.com","JWT-SCDW.woodgrove.com","JWT-SCDW","WOODGROVE",,,"S...
"WIN-752HJBSX24M.woodgrove.com","WIN-752HJBSX24M.woodgrove.com","WIN-752HJBSX...

You can use this to create a copy of your data, or use it as a way to exchange your data with other applications. Because of the way that other applications use CSV files, you may need to remove the first line of the CSV file which describes what the object was from the PowerShell perspective, but otherwise, you should be able to use the CSV file easily!

Posted June 4, 2010 by jtruher3 in ServiceManager

More and more with management packs   Leave a comment

I’ve been a little slow in updating here, but that doesn’t reflect any inactivity, just my poor rhythm for posting.

Earlier in the year I did a post on what was possible to do in a single line of PowerShell. In this post, I’m going to take that further and explore this in more detail. Specifically, we’ll take a closer look at all of the possibilities with PowerShell and Service Manager management packs. I’ve blogged on management packs in the past, but generally on what to do with them rather than what they are. In this blog, we’ll take a look at the various properties of a management pack and how easy they are to access from PowerShell.

First, if we take a look at the available properties of a management pack, we see a pretty rich object model.

PS> $emg = new-object Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.EnterpriseManagementGroup Localhost
PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|get-member


   TypeName: Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPack

Name                                        MemberType Definition
----                                        ---------- ----------
AcceptChanges                               Method     System.Void AcceptChanges(), System.Void AcceptChanges(Micros...
AddService                                  Method     System.Void AddService[T, V](string name, Microsoft.Enterpris...
CheckVersionCompatibility                   Method     System.Void CheckVersionCompatibility(Microsoft.EnterpriseMan...
Configure                                   Method     System.Void Configure(System.IO.Stream configuration)
DeleteEnterpriseManagementObjectGroup       Method     System.Void DeleteEnterpriseManagementObjectGroup(Microsoft.E...
DeleteMonitoringObjectGroup                 Method     System.Void DeleteMonitoringObjectGroup(Microsoft.EnterpriseM...
Dispose                                     Method     System.Void Dispose()
Equals                                      Method     bool Equals(System.Object obj)
FindManagementPackElementByName             Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackEl...
GetCategories                               Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackEl...
. . .
RemoveService                               Method     System.Void RemoveService(string name)
RemoveServices                              Method     System.Void RemoveServices()
ToString                                    Method     string ToString()
Verify                                      Method     System.Void Verify()
ContentReadable                             Property   System.Boolean ContentReadable {get;}
DefaultLanguageCode                         Property   System.String DefaultLanguageCode {get;set;}
Description                                 Property   System.String Description {get;set;}
DisplayName                                 Property   System.String DisplayName {get;set;}
. . .
SchemaVersion                               Property   System.Version SchemaVersion {get;}
Sealed                                      Property   System.Boolean Sealed {get;}
TimeCreated                                 Property   System.DateTime TimeCreated {get;}
Version                                     Property   System.Version Version {get;set;}
VersionId                                   Property   System.Guid VersionId {get;}

In fact, you’ll see about 150 different methods and properties. I’ve discussed various aspects of some of the properties and methods in earlier posts, but I want to concentrate on the methods in this posting, and the methods I want to look at specifically are the Get* methods. These methods return information about the contents and configuration of the management packs. Since there are about 100 Get* methods, i’d like to reduce the list to something more manageable, so we’ll only look at the get* methods that don’t take any arguments.

PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|get-member get*|?{$_.definition -match "\(\)"}


   TypeName: Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPack

Name                        MemberType Definition
----                        ---------- ----------
GetCategories               Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetClasses                  Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetConfigurationGroups      Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetConsoleTasks             Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetDataTypes                Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetDataWarehouseDataSets    Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetDataWarehouseScripts     Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetDiagnostics              Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetDimensionTypes           Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetDiscoveries              Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetEnumerations             Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetFactTypes                Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetFolderItems              Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackItemCollection[Mic...
GetFolders                  Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetForms                    Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetHashCode                 Method     int GetHashCode()
GetImageReferences          Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackItemCollection[Mic...
GetImages                   Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetLanguagePacks            Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetLinkedReports            Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetManagementPackCategories Method     System.Collections.Generic.IList[Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration...
GetMeasureTypes             Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetModuleTypes              Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetMonitors                 Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetObjectTemplates          Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetOutriggerTypes           Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetOverrides                Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetRecoveries               Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetRelationshipFactTypes    Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetRelationships            Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetReportParameterControls  Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetReportResources          Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetReports                  Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetResources                Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetRules                    Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetSchemaTypes              Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetSecureReferences         Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetServiceLevelObjectives   Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetServices                 Method     System.Collections.Generic.IList[T] GetServices[T]()
GetStringResources          Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetTasks                    Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetTemplates                Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetType                     Method     type GetType()
GetTypeProjections          Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetUIPages                  Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetUIPageSets               Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetUnitMonitorTypes         Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetViews                    Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetViewTypes                Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...
GetWarehouseModuleTypes     Method     Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPackElementCollection[...

There are still 50 of these, but there are some methods that are easier to use. First nearly all of these methods return a ManagementPackElementCollection, only 2 return a ManagementPackItemCollection (GetFolderItems and GetImageReferences), and 4 others require a typed invocation (GetServices, GetManagementPackCategories, GetResources and GetServiceLevelObjectives). We’ll focus on the methods that return a ManagementPackElementCollection and that don’t take a generic type, because they’re the simplest to deal with. Since these methods don’t take any arguments, we can just call them and see what we get back. The method name should give us a clue about what we’ll get back, and you can check the Service Manager SDK documentation as well for more information.

As a first example, we’ll retrieve the System.Library management pack and inspect all the classes declared in the mp and get their  base class.

PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|?{$_.Name -eq "System.Library"}|
>> %{$_.GetClasses()}|ft Abstract,Name,@{Label="Base";e={$emg.entitytypes.GetClass($_.base.id).Name}} -au
>>

Abstract Name                        Base
-------- ----                        ----
    True System.Entity
    True System.Collections          System.Entity
    True System.ConfigItem           System.Entity
    True System.LogicalEntity        System.ConfigItem
    True System.ApplicationComponent System.LogicalEntity
    True System.ComputerRole         System.LogicalEntity
    True System.Database             System.ApplicationComponent
    True System.Device               System.LogicalEntity
    True System.Computer             System.Device
    True System.FTPSite              System.ApplicationComponent
    True System.Group                System.LogicalEntity
    True System.LocalApplication     System.LogicalEntity
    True System.LogicalHardware      System.LogicalEntity
    True System.NetworkDevice        System.Device
    True System.OperatingSystem      System.LogicalEntity
    True System.Perspective          System.LogicalEntity
    True System.PhysicalEntity       System.ConfigItem
    True System.Printer              System.Device
    True System.Service              System.LogicalEntity
    True System.SoftwareInstallation System.LogicalEntity
    True System.User                 System.LogicalEntity
   False System.Domain.User          System.User
    True System.WebSite              System.ApplicationComponent

Note that I’m using the EMG in the formatting directives to get the base class.

If we wanted to get the XML for one of these classes, we can do that with the CreateNavigator method.  We’ll collect the classes and then use the CreateNavigator method to get at the XML. This examples retrieves the System.Library management pack and then displays the XML for the System.ConfigItem class.

PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|?{$_.Name -eq "System.Library"}|
>> %{$_.GetClasses()}|?{$_.Name -eq "System.ConfigItem"}|%{$_.CreateNavigator().OuterXML}
>>
<ClassType ID="System.ConfigItem" Accessibility="Public" Abstract="true" 
        Base="System.Entity" Hosted="false" Singleton="false" Extension="false">
  <Property ID="ObjectStatus" Type="enum" AutoIncrement="false" Key="false" CaseSensitive="false" 
        MaxLength="256" MinLength="0" Required="false" EnumType="System.ConfigItem.ObjectStatusEnum" 
        DefaultValue="System.ConfigItem.ObjectStatusEnum.Active" />
  <Property ID="AssetStatus" Type="enum" AutoIncrement="false" Key="false" CaseSensitive="false" 
        MaxLength="256" MinLength="0" Required="false" EnumType="System.ConfigItem.AssetStatusEnum" />
  <Property ID="Notes" Type="richtext" AutoIncrement="false" Key="false" CaseSensitive="false" 
        MaxLength="4000" MinLength="0" Required="false" />
</ClassType>

Pretty cool! The following example retrieves all the views in the system:

PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|%{$_.GetViews()}|ft name,description

Name                                                        Description
----                                                        -----------
Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ServiceManager.UI.Adminis... Lists all subscriptions
Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ServiceManager.UI.Adminis... Lists all Run As accounts
Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ServiceManager.UI.Adminis... Contains general, portal, and solution settings
Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ServiceManager.UI.Adminis... Administration Overview
Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.ServiceManager.UI.Adminis... Lists all templates
. . .
AllComputersView                                            Lists all computers
AllPrintersView                                             Lists all printers
QueuesView                                                  Lists all the queues available
TemplatesView                                               Lists all the templates available
TasksView                                                   Lists all the console tasks defined in the system
EnumerationView                                             Displays all the lists available
GroupsView                                                  Lists all groups
WorkItemExclusionRule                                       Work item exclusion workflow view
ChangeManagement.Views.ChangeRequestsCancelled              Lists all canceled change requests
ChangeManagement.Views.ChangeRequestsCompleted              Lists all completed change requests
ChangeManagement.Views.ChangeRequestsClosed                 Lists all closed change requests
ChangeManagement.Views.AllChangeRequests                    Lists all change requests
ChangeManagement.Views.ChangeRequestsRejected               Lists all rejected change requests
ChangeManagement.Views.ChangeRequestsInReview               Change Requests: In Review
. . .
System.WorkItem.Incident.Pending.View                       Lists all pending incidents
System.WorkItem.Incident.OverDue.View                       Lists all overdue incidents
System.WorkItem.Incident.Active.Unassigned.View             Lists all open unassigned incidents
Microsoft.SystemCenter.AllActiveAnnouncementsView           Active Announcements
Microsoft.SystemCenter.AllAnnouncementsView                 All Announcements

And we can inspect the XML for the one of the views (say the AllPrintersView), with this one-liner:

PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|%{$_.GetViews()}|
>> ?{$_.name -eq "allprintersview"}| %{$_.createnavigator().outerxml}

<View ID="AllPrintersView" Accessibility="Public" Enabled="true" Target="Windows!Microsoft.AD.Printer" TypeID="SMConsole!GridViewType" Visible="true">
  <Category>NotUsed</Category>
  <Data>
    <Adapters>
      <Adapter AdapterName="dataportal:EnterpriseManagementObjectProjectionAdapter">
        <AdapterAssembly>Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.SdkDataAccess</AdapterAssembly>
        <AdapterType>Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.SdkDataAccess.DataAdapters.EnterpriseManagementObjectProjectionAdapter</AdapterType>
      </Adapter>
      <Adapter AdapterName="viewframework://Adapters/AdvancedList">
        <AdapterAssembly>Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.ViewFramework</AdapterAssembly>
        <AdapterType>Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.ViewFramework.AdvancedListSupportAdapter</AdapterType>
      </Adapter>
      <Adapter AdapterName="omsdk://Adapters/Criteria">
        <AdapterAssembly>Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.SdkDataAccess</AdapterAssembly>
        <AdapterType>Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.SdkDataAccess.DataAdapters.SdkCriteriaAdapter</AdapterType>
      </Adapter>
    </Adapters>
    <ItemsSource>
      <AdvancedListSupportClass DataTypeName="" AdapterName="viewframework://Adapters/AdvancedList" FullUpdateAdapter="dataportal:EnterpriseManagementObjectProjectionAdapter" DataSource="mom:ManagementGroup" IsRecurring="True" RecurrenceFrequency="{x:Static s:Int32.MaxValue}" FullUpdateFrequency="1" Streaming="true" xmlns="clr-namespace:Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.ViewFramework;assembly=Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.ViewFramework" xmlns:av="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml" xmlns:s="clr-namespace:System;assembly=mscorlib">
        <AdvancedListSupportClass.Parameters>
          <QueryParameter Parameter="TypeProjectionName" Value="Microsoft.Windows.PrinterView.ProjectionType" />
        </AdvancedListSupportClass.Parameters>
      </AdvancedListSupportClass>
    </ItemsSource>
    <Criteria>
      <QueryCriteria Adapter="omsdk://Adapters/Criteria" xmlns="http://tempuri.org/Criteria.xsd">
        <Criteria>
          <FreeformCriteria>
            <Freeform>
              <Criteria xmlns="http://Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.Criteria/">
                <Expression>
                  <SimpleExpression>
                    <ValueExpressionLeft>
                      <Property>$Context/Property[Type='System!System.ConfigItem']/ObjectStatus$</Property>
                    </ValueExpressionLeft>
                    <Operator>NotEqual</Operator>
                    <ValueExpressionRight>
                      <Value>$MPElement[Name="System!System.ConfigItem.ObjectStatusEnum.PendingDelete"]$</Value>
                    </ValueExpressionRight>
                  </SimpleExpression>
                </Expression>
              </Criteria>
            </Freeform>
          </FreeformCriteria>
        </Criteria>
      </QueryCriteria>
    </Criteria>
  </Data>
  <Presentation>
    <Columns>
      <mux:ColumnCollection xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation" xmlns:mux="http://schemas.microsoft.com/SystemCenter/Common/UI/Views/GridView" xmlns:s="clr-namespace:System;assembly=mscorlib" xmlns:datebinding="clr-namespace:Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.SdkDataAccess.Common;assembly=Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.UI.SdkDataAccess">
        <mux:Column Name="uncName" DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=UNCName}" Width="120" DisplayName="Header_UNCName" Property="UNCName" DataType="s:String" />
        <mux:Column Name="printerName" DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=PrinterName}" Width="120" DisplayName="Header_PrinterName" Property="PrinterName" DataType="s:String" />
        <mux:Column Name="description" DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=Description}" Width="120" DisplayName="Header_Description" Property="Description" DataType="s:String" />
        <mux:Column Name="location" DisplayMemberBinding="{Binding Path=Location}" Width="120" DisplayName="Header_Location" Property="Location" DataType="s:String" />
      </mux:ColumnCollection>
    </Columns>
    <ViewStrings>
      <ViewString ID="Header_UNCName">$MPElement[Name="AllPrintersView.Header_UNCName"]$</ViewString>
      <ViewString ID="Header_PrinterName">$MPElement[Name="AllPrintersView.Header_PrinterName"]$</ViewString>
      <ViewString ID="Header_Description">$MPElement[Name="AllPrintersView.Header_Description"]$</ViewString>
      <ViewString ID="Header_Location">$MPElement[Name="AllPrintersView.Header_Location"]$</ViewString>
    </ViewStrings>
  </Presentation>
</View>

Since the CreateNavigator method is available on ManagementPackElement, we can use that method with every one of the objects returned by the methods mentioned above – it’s a great way to explore and see what’s going on in your management pack.

As an interesting aside, we can invoke all of these simple methods with a couple of lines of script. This will tell us the total number of each of the management pack elements returned by the method. The first line collects the names of the methods that we want to invoke. The second line creates a hash table to hold our results and the last line retrieves all the management packs, and invokes each method on the management pack object and adds the count of those elements to the hash table. This is a pretty cool trick to invoke a method without know what the method name is before hand.

PS> $names = $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|
>> get-member get*s|
>> ?{$_.definition -match "ManagementPackElementCollection" -and 
>> $_.definition -notmatch "\[T\]"}|%{$_.name}
PS> $counthash = $names | %{ $h = @{}}{$h.$_ = 0 } {$h }
PS> $emg.ManagementPacks.GetManagementPacks()|%{
>> $mp = $_
>> $names | %{ $counthash.$_ += $mp.$_.invoke().count }
>> }
>>
PS> $counthash

Name                           Value
----                           -----
GetReportResources             28
GetModuleTypes                 293
GetObjectTemplates             24
GetUIPages                     48
GetOutriggerTypes              30
GetRules                       53
GetTasks                       6
GetReports                     23
GetSchemaTypes                 28
GetClasses                     272
GetMonitors                    47
GetTypeProjections             56
GetReportParameterControls     0
GetConfigurationGroups         0
GetDimensionTypes              26
GetRelationships               124
GetViewTypes                   24
GetLinkedReports               0
GetStringResources             1211
GetFactTypes                   4
GetDataTypes                   45
GetTemplates                   3
GetForms                       16
GetFolders                     85
GetWarehouseModuleTypes        9
GetMeasureTypes                2
GetSecureReferences            11
GetRecoveries                  1
GetViews                       138
GetDiscoveries                 31
GetUIPageSets                  225
GetEnumerations                460
GetDataWarehouseScripts        38
GetConsoleTasks                160
GetCategories                  583
GetDataWarehouseDataSets       0
GetOverrides                   49
GetImages                      254
GetDiagnostics                 0
GetLanguagePacks               89
GetRelationshipFactTypes       28
GetUnitMonitorTypes            239

woo hoo!

Posted May 28, 2010 by jtruher3 in ServiceManager

Testing the Integrity of a Management Pack   Leave a comment

When I’m creating a new management pack, I want to be sure that the management pack is valid before I import it. I know that if it’s wrong, the system won’t import it, but I generally like to know these things before I try. In order to do that, I wrote a pretty simple script to test the management pack. It takes advantage of the Verify method on management pack object. This verification does a number of things. First, it checks to be sure that there are no XSD validation errors. If there are, the method throws an exception. The Verify method also checks to be sure that references are correct and present. Note that there may still be some errors that are found upon import, but most of the issues will be caught by this script.

When everything works right, you’ll see something like the following:

PS> test-managementpack .\PowerShell.WATest.xml|ft Verified,Name,FullName -au

Verified Name              FullName
-------- ----              --------
True     PowerShell.WATest C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\PowerShell.WATest.xml

However, if something is busted, you’ll see this:

PS> test-managementpack .\BigHonkingMP.xml|Ft Verified,Name,FullName -au

Verified Name         FullName
-------- ----         --------
False    BigHonkingMP C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\BigHonkingMP.xml

The results of test-managementpack include the error, you can see what happened, by getting the Error property:

PS> test-managementpack .\BigHonkingMP.xml|Fl name,error


Name  : BigHonkingMP
Error : {Exception calling "Verify" with "0" argument(s): "Verification failed with 1 errors:
        -------------------------------------------------------
        Error 1:
        : Failed to verify class: BigHonkingMP.ConcreteMicroBleh
        Host class BigHonkingMP.AbstractBleh and hosted class BigHonkingMP.ConcreteMicroBleh define the same set of key properties.
        -------------------------------------------------------
        "}

You can also pipe files at test-managementpack, so you can use it like this:

PS> ls *.xml|test-managementpack

Verified Name                                           FullName
-------- ----                                           --------
False    BigHonkingMP                                   C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\BigHonkingMP.xml
. . .

Which I thought was pretty handy – going through a bunch of MPs at once.

Here’s the script, it relies on version 2.0 of PowerShell. I’ve added online help, so you can run get-help test-managementpack to get info on it. The business end of the script is in line 29 and 30. That’s where I create a management pack object and then call verify. If the management pack object can’t be created, or if it fails verify, the exception gets caught and then the script builds up an error message. Rather than using Write-Error to indicate the problem, I decided to include the error message in resultant object. I did this because I didn’t really want the error output at this point, but I wanted to hang on to the verify failure.

 

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#requires -version 2.0

param ( 
    [parameter(Position=0,Mandatory=$true,ValueFromPipeline=$true)]
    [string[]]$fullname 
    )

BEGIN
{
# GLOBAL REFERENCES
# $SMDIR
$NS = "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement"
[reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName("${NS}.Core")|out-null
$EMG = new-object "${NS}.EnterpriseManagementGroup" localhost
$MPSType = "${NS}.Configuration.IO.ManagementPackFileStore"
$MPType  = "${NS}.Configuration.ManagementPack"
}

PROCESS
{
    $fullname | %{ 
        $path = (resolve-path $_).path
        $FInfo = [io.fileinfo]$path
        $dir = $FInfo.DirectoryName
        $fil = $FInfo.FullName
        $error.clear()
        try
        {
            $MP = new-object $MPType $fil,$EMG
            $MP.Verify() 
        }
        catch { ; }
        if ( $error.count ) 
        { 
            $Verified = $false 
            $msgs = $error|%{$_.Exception;$_.Exception.InnerException}
            $ErrorMessage = $msgs -join "`n"
        } 
        else 
        { 
            $ErrorMessage = "No Errors" 
            $Verified = $true 
        }
        $PSO = new-object PSObject
        $PSO.psobject.typenames[0]=  "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Configuration.ManagementPack.CustomVerification"
        $PSO | add-member NoteProperty Verified $Verified
        $PSO | add-member NoteProperty Name $MP.Name
        $PSO | add-member NoteProperty FullName $fil
        $PSO | add-member NoteProperty Error $error.clone()
        $PSO | add-member NoteProperty ErrorMessage $ErrorMessage
        $PSO
    }
}

<#
.SYNOPSIS
    Verify the integrity of a management pack
.DESCRIPTION
    The cmdlet attempts to create a management pack object based on the
    provided file and then calls the verify method to determine whether
    the management pack is valid.
.PARAMETER fullname
    The fullname of the management pack
.EXAMPLE
ls wf*.xml|test-ManagementPack
Verified Name FullName
——– —- ——–
True WF.NoWorkflow C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\wf.NoWorkflow.xml
True WF.Simple C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\wf.Simple.xml
True WF.SingleCmdTask C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\wf.SingleCmdTask.xml
True WF.SingleTask C:\Program Files\System Center Management Packs\wf.SingleTask.xml

.INPUTS
    Output from get-childitem
    Any object which has a fullname property which represents a management pack
.OUTPUTS
    A custom object which contains the following:
        Verified – A boolean indicating whether the MP was verified
        Name – The name of the management pack
        FullName – The path to the management pack
        Error – Errors produced while verifying the management pack
.LINK
    Export-ManagementPack
    Get-ManagementPack
    Import-ManagementPack
    New-ManagementPack
    New-SealedManagementPack
    Remove-ManagementPack

#>

Posted May 12, 2010 by jtruher3 in ServiceManager

Getting Service Manager Incidents with PowerShell   3 comments

So far in these blogs, I’ve not addressed one of the main focuses of Service Manager which is how to manage incidents. In Service Manager, incidents are more than simple instances, they’re what’s called a “projection”. Jakub has some great postings on projections (here and here), so I’m not going to go into detail about what a projection is, but rather how it affects PowerShell. The object model of the projection makes it a little tricky to work with from PowerShell, but can be done.

Here’s what the incident view looks like in the console.

That’s my target – create a script that has output similar to the console.

The script is constructed into two sections:

  • The BEGIN section makes sure that the assemblies we need are loaded and creates functions that the script will use.
    • The code in lines 20 to 50 make sure Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.dll is loaded and that we have a successful connection to the Data Access Service.
    • The Get-SMIncident function does the actual work of retrieving the incident from the Data Access Service. It’s a little tricky because the Service Manager 2010 SDK uses generics, so we need a bit of reflection to invoke the method. This function also creates the criteria that we use to retrieve the incident. This way we filter on the server side rather than the client side which will be much faster if we have any reasonable number of incidents.
    • The Get-AdaptedEMO function converts the EnterpriseManagementObject to something more idiomatic for PowerShell. I’ve mentioned this before, but since the actual interesting information is actually in the Values property of the EnterpriseManagementObject, this function creates a PSCustom object to which we add NoteProperties. This will help us later when we start formatting.
  • The END section does the work of retrieving the incident and adapting it from how it is retrieved from the Data Access Service to something more useful.
    • This is done by adapting the main object of the projection (the object property on the projection) and the EnterpriseManagementObjects that represent the various relationships which is in line 166 of the script. It takes advantage of the fact that a projection object has an enumerator. Line 166 retrieves the keys which are then used in the foreach loop in 167-174 to retrieve each related object of the projection. That object is then adapted for PowerShell use and added as a property to the PSCustom object which represents the incident.
    • Lines 176-188 promote some of the properties of the main object (the incident’s Object property) as well as some of the related objects properties so we can create the formatting we want more easily.
    • Finally, the adapted incident is output (line 190)
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#requires -version 2.0
# Get-Incident
# Retrieve Service Manager Incidnents
# The IncidentString may need to include a trailing ‘%’
# examples:
# Get-Incident IR17%
# Retrieves incidents that have a displayname which starts with ‘IR17’
[CmdletBinding(SupportsShouldProcess=$true)]
param ( 
    [Parameter(Position=0)][string]$IncidentString = "%",
    [Parameter()][String]$ComputerName = "localhost",
    [Parameter()]$Credential
    )

# Set up the enviroment
# this creates the functions that we need to get the incident
# and sets up the types and methods we need to work
BEGIN
{
    # Save the NameSpace to save some room
    $NS = "Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement"
    $EMGType = "${NS}.EnterpriseManagementGroup"
    # if we don’t have our EnterpriseManagementObject available, we need to
    # load the assembly
    if ( ! ("${NS}.Common.EnterpriseManagementObject" -as "type"))
    {
        [reflection.assembly]::LoadWithPartialName("${NS}.Core")|out-null
    }

    # Create the connection to the ManagementGroup and use a
    # credential if one was offered.
    if ( $Credential )
    {
        $SETType = "${NS}.EnterpriseManagementConnectionSettings"
        $Settings = new-object $SETType $ComputerName
        $Settings.UserName = $Credential.GetNetWorkCredential().UserName
        $Settings.Domain   = $Credential.GetNetWorkCredential().Domain
        $Settings.Password = $Credential.Password
        $EMG = new-object $EMGType $Settings
    }
    else
    {
        $EMG = new-object $EMGType $ComputerName
    }
    # Be sure we have a connection
    if ( $EMG -isnot "${NS}.EnterpriseManagementGroup" )
    {
        Throw "Could not connect to $ComputerName"
    }

    # Create some variables that we need for our script
    $DEFAULT = ("${NS}.Common.ObjectQueryOptions" -as "type")::Default
    $EMOT    = "${NS}.Common.EnterpriseManagementObject" -as "type"
    $IMGMT   = $emg.EntityObjects.GetType()
    $EMOP = "EnterpriseManagementObjectProjection"
    $IPT = "System.WorkItem.Incident.ProjectionType"
    ####

    # this function retrieves incidents from the Server. It uses reflection to
    # call the GetObjectProjectionReader method on the EntityObjects interface
    function Get-SMIncident
    {
        param ( $CRString )
        $Projection = $emg.EntityTypes.GetTypeProjections()|
            ?{$_.name -eq $IPT}
        if ( ! $Projection )
        {
            # FATAL ERROR
            throw "Could not retrieve projection type"
        }
        # Create the criteria which will allow us to retrieve the incident
        $CriteriaType = "${NS}.Common.ObjectProjectionCriteria"
        # This could be more strict, and the user can provide a SQL like Value
        # so you could use "IR17 %" to get IR17 or "IR%" to get all incidents
        # if you want more (or less) strictness, just change the criteria
        $CriteriaString = @’
<Criteria xmlns="http://Microsoft.EnterpriseManagement.Core.Criteria/"&gt;
  <Expression>
    <SimpleExpression>
      <ValueExpressionLeft>
        <GenericProperty>DisplayName</GenericProperty>
      </ValueExpressionLeft>
      <Operator>Like</Operator>
      <ValueExpressionRight>
        <Value>{0}</Value>
      </ValueExpressionRight>
    </SimpleExpression>
  </Expression>
</Criteria>
‘@
 -f $CRString

        try
        {
           $criteria = new-object $CriteriaType `
               $CriteriaString,$Projection,$Projection.ManagementGroup
           # use reflection to retrieve the incident by retrieving the
           # appropriate method and invoking it
           [type[]] $TYPES = ${CriteriaType},"${NS}.Common.ObjectQueryOptions"
           $ObjectReader = $IMGMT.GetMethod("GetObjectProjectionReader",$TYPES)
           $GenericMethod = $ObjectReader.MakeGenericMethod($EMOT)
           [array]$arguments = ($criteria -as "${CriteriaType}"),$DEFAULT
           # this will return the incident that matches the criteria
           ,$GenericMethod.invoke($emg.EntityObjects,$arguments)
        }
        catch
        {
            throw "Could not retrieve incidents"
        }
    }

    # this function takes an instance of an EnterpriseManagementObject and
    # creates a PS custom object. The custom object uses some of the properties
    # of the standard EnterpriseManagementObject but promotes the va
    function Get-AdaptedEMO
    {
        param ( $EMO )
        $Type = $EMO.GetType().Name
        $ClassName = $EMO.GetLeastDerivedNonAbstractClass().name
        $AdaptedObject = new-object psobject
        $AdaptedObject.PSObject.TypeNames.Insert(0,"${Type}#${ClassName}")
        # some standard properties that should be populated in our custom
        # object
        $TERMS = "LastModified","LastModifiedBy",
            "LeastDerivedNonAbstractManagementPackClassId"
        Add-Member -input $AdaptedObject NoteProperty Id $EMO.id.guid
        foreach($term in $TERMS)
        {
            Add-Member -input $AdaptedObject NoteProperty $Term $EMO.$Term
        }
        # get the content of values property and add them to our adapted object
        $EMO.Values | %{ 
            $AdaptedObject | Add-Member -force NoteProperty $_.Type $_.Value 
            } 
        $AdaptedObject
    }

} # END BEGIN

END
{
    # retrieve the incidents based on the incidentstring
    $IncidentCollection = Get-SMIncident $IncidentString
    # if we didn’t find an incident, provide a message and exit
    # one could argue that we should just exit
    if ( $IncidentCollection.Count -eq 0 )
    {
        $msg = "ERROR: No incidents match ‘$IncidentString’."
        Write-Host -fore red $b $msg
        Write-Host -fore red $b "Exiting"
        exit
    }
    # for each incident in the incidents that matched the criteria
    # construct a custom PSObject and emit
    foreach($Incident in $IncidentCollection)
    {
        # Create the custom object to hold the incident information
        $AdaptedIncident = new-object psobject
        $AdaptedIncident.PSObject.TypeNames.Insert(0,"${EMOP}#${IPT}")

        # Construct an adapted object for the main object of the incident
        $object = Get-AdaptedEMO $Incident.Object
        add-member -input $AdaptedIncident NoteProperty Object $object

        # for each one of the component parts of the incident, add an
        # adapted object to the adapted incident
        $keys = $Incident | %{ $_.key.name } | sort -uniq
        foreach($key in $keys )
        {
            Add-Member -Input $AdaptedIncident NoteProperty $key @()
            $Incident[$key] | %{ 
                $object = Get-AdaptedEMO $_.Object
                $AdaptedIncident.$key += $object
                }
        }

        # Add some members to the adapted incident
        # this will aid in presentation and filtering
        # first the simple promotions
        $Terms = "Id","Title","Description","DisplayName",
            "Priority","CreatedDate","LastModified"
        foreach($term in $Terms)
        {
            Add-Member -input $AdaptedIncident NoteProperty $term $AdaptedIncident.Object.$term
        }
        # more complex promotions
        Add-Member -input $AdaptedIncident NoteProperty Status $AdaptedIncident.Object.Status.DisplayName
        Add-Member -input $AdaptedIncident NoteProperty AssignedTo $AdaptedIncident.AssignedWorkItem[0].DisplayName
        Add-Member -input $AdaptedIncident NoteProperty AffectedUser $AdaptedIncident.RequestedWorkItem[0].DisplayName
        # emit the object
        $AdaptedIncident
    }
} # END

 

When we run the script, we provide an incident ID to reduce the amount of data returned from the Data Access Service.

PS> ./get-incident IR17%


Object                 : @{LastModified=1/28/2010 1:30:24 AM; LastModifiedBy=7431e155-3d9e-4724-895e-c03ba951a352; Leas
                         tDerivedNonAbstractManagementPackClassId=a604b942-4c7b-2fb2-28dc-61dc6f465c68; TargetResolutio
                         nTime=; Escalated=False; Source=IncidentSourceEnum.Console; Status=IncidentStatusEnum.Active;
                         ResolutionDescription=; NeedsKnowledgeArticle=False; TierQueue=; HasCreatedKnowledgeArticle=Fa
                         lse; LastModifiedSource=IncidentSourceEnum.Console; Classification=IncidentClassificationEnum.
                         Hardware; ResolutionCategory=; Priority=9; Impact=System.WorkItem.TroubleTicket.ImpactEnum.Hig
                         h; Urgency=System.WorkItem.TroubleTicket.UrgencyEnum.High; ClosedDate=; ResolvedDate=; Id=IR17
                         ; Title=my computer is brokeked; Description=it don't work; ContactMethod=; CreatedDate=1/18/2
                         010 10:58:23 PM; ScheduledStartDate=; ScheduledEndDate=; ActualStartDate=; ActualEndDate=; Dis
                         playName=IR17 - my computer is brokeked}
AppliesToTroubleTicket : {@{LastModified=1/28/2010 1:02:44 AM; LastModifiedBy=7431e155-3d9e-4724-895e-c03ba951a352; Lea
                         stDerivedNonAbstractManagementPackClassId=dbb6a632-0a7e-cef8-1fc9-405d5cd4d911; ActionType=Sys
                         tem.WorkItem.ActionLogEnum.RecordReopened; Title=Action log from 01/27/2010 17:02:44; Descript
                         setStatus=; Notes=; DisplayName=Domain Admninistrator}}
. . .
RequestedWorkItem      : {@{Id=642feed0-7e9a-b516-81cc-7f94be6bce91; LastModified=11/18/2009 5:30:17 PM; LastModifiedBy
                         =8bb08d83-64f1-4230-a8c9-e022beae2819; LeastDerivedNonAbstractManagementPackClassId=eca3c52a-f
                         273-5cdc-f165-3eb95a2b26cf; Domain=WOODGROVE; UserName=blesh; DistinguishedName=CN=Bruce Lesh,
                         CN=Users,DC=woodgrove,DC=com; SID=S-1-5-21-2548544548-3952215810-4123597018-1129; FQDN=woodgro
                         ve.com; UPN=blesh@woodgrove.com; FirstName=Bruce; Initials=; LastName=Lesh; Company=; Departme
                         nt=; Office=; Title=; EmployeeId=; StreetAddress=; City=; State=; Zip=; Country=; BusinessPhon
                         e=; BusinessPhone2=; HomePhone=; HomePhone2=; Fax=; Mobile=; Pager=; ObjectStatus=System.Confi
                         gItem.ObjectStatusEnum.Active; AssetStatus=; Notes=; DisplayName=Bruce Lesh}}
Id                     : IR17
Title                  : my computer is brokeked
Description            : it don't work
DisplayName            : IR17 - my computer is brokeked
Priority               : 9
CreatedDate            : 1/18/2010 10:58:23 PM
LastModified           : 1/28/2010 1:30:24 AM
Status                 : Active
AssignedTo             : Domain Admninistrator
AffectedUser           : Bruce Lesh

These results look pretty bad, it’s difficult to see what’s really important and what isn’t. However we can create a table view which can mimic the view that we see in the console. Here’s the formatting does it.

. . .
    <View>
      <Name>IncidentView</Name>
      <ViewSelectedBy>
        <TypeName>EnterpriseManagementObjectProjection#System.WorkItem.Incident.ProjectionType</TypeName>
      </ViewSelectedBy>
      <TableControl>
        <AutoSize />
        <TableHeaders>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>Id</Label></TableColumnHeader>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>Title</Label></TableColumnHeader>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>AssignedTo</Label></TableColumnHeader>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>Status</Label></TableColumnHeader>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>Priority</Label><Alignment>Right</Alignment></TableColumnHeader>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>AffectedUser</Label></TableColumnHeader>
          <TableColumnHeader><Label>LastModified</Label></TableColumnHeader>
        </TableHeaders>
        <TableRowEntries>
          <TableRowEntry>
           <TableColumnItems>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>Id</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>Title</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>AssignedTo</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>Status</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>Priority</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>AffectedUser</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
              <TableColumnItem><PropertyName>LastModified</PropertyName></TableColumnItem>
           </TableColumnItems>
          </TableRowEntry>
        </TableRowEntries>
      </TableControl>
    </View>
. . .

update the format directives with update-formatdata, and voila!

PS> update-formatdata GetIncident.format.ps1xml
PS> ./get-incident IR17%

Id   Title                   AssignedTo            Status Priority AffectedUser LastModified
--   -----                   ----------            ------ -------- ------------ ------------
IR17 my computer is brokeked Domain Admninistrator Active        9 Bruce Lesh   1/28/2010 1:30:24 AM


PS> ./get-incident IR%

Id   Title                   AssignedTo            Status Priority AffectedUser  LastModified
--   -----                   ----------            ------ -------- ------------  ------------
IR17 my computer is brokeked Domain Admninistrator Active        9 Bruce Lesh    1/28/2010 1:30:24 AM
IR2  email is brokoken       Domain Admninistrator Closed        9 Al Young      12/15/2009 11:41:57 PM
IR13 more busted 2           Domain Admninistrator Closed        9 Carlos Garcia 1/28/2010 12:55:28 AM
IR15 busted 3                Domain Admninistrator Closed        9 Greg Adams    1/5/2010 6:50:11 PM

that looks pretty good!

Posted February 5, 2010 by jtruher3 in ServiceManager